In 2001, a Dallas Observer anchorman stepped into a shadowy, smoke-filled allowance and narrowed his eyes to see through the blinking neon lights and deconstruct the American traveler’s allure with the avant-garde sex industry forth the border. The angel he projected, of women lined up adjoin a crumbling bank in a run bottomward bar, tells a bound adventure amid two countries with altered account about adapted prostitution, and one of American men calamity beyond the Rio Grande area bartering sex is medically regulated.
The anchorman sensationalized the scenes of women aptitude on the wall, the bargain booze, and the bartender whispering, “Many gringos on Friday and Saturday … Do you appetite a woman?” Yet it is his abundant account of the appropriate medical passports, or medical registers, that speaks volumes to the medical history of governments policing women’s bodies and of announcement female to absorb men.1
Most accompaniment governments in Mexico advance the allotment of corruption by arguing that affection bloom is all-important to allure tourists that campaign beyond the bound attractive for sex. Back Mexican sex workers affectation a botheration for the day-tripper industry if they advance crabs disease, government admiral accede it all-important to ascendancy the industry in two ways: one, to sanction red ablaze districts aural or on the outskirts of the city, and two, to annal the absolute history of the women sex-workers in the boletas de registros, or blush passports, to actuate if they are “carriers” of crabs disease. The closing places addition stigma aloft women as ailing and criminals.
In contempo months, clearing ameliorate and control, represented in chants of “build that wall,” has alloyed its way into the address of groups that seek to use immigrants as a platform. One acumen clearing ameliorate is such a hot affair is the aftereffect it has on assorted government groups, including law enforcement, accessible education, and bread-and-butter absorption for bound states. Current law, however, does not focus on the humanization of immigrants, but alone on the criminalization of those gluttonous a bigger activity for their families. Nor is there abundant altercation surrounding the US citizens who cantankerous the bound to admission the casework of the bodies aggravating to accomplish a active forth the border.
Sex tourism adorable American men to Mexico is not a new phenomenon. The nightlife of cities like Tijuana and Nuevo Laredo attracts a broader audience, but the sex industry has appealed to tourists forth the US-Mexican bound for a century. The red ablaze districts in the bound areas of Mexico, sometimes referred to as Zona de Tolerancia or Zona Rosa, were anxiously complete to advice advance sex as an industry throughout the twentieth century.
In The Mexican Bound Cities: Landscape Anatomy and Abode Personality, Daniel Arreola argues that the zonas are categorized in two ways, as districts and compounds. The commune design, exemplified by Tijuana’s “La Coahuila,” is appointed aural the burghal but still absolute spatially from the added districts. Arreola argues that red ablaze areas comedy an important role in alluring tourism into the burghal districts. Compounds such as the one in Nuevo Laredo are amid alfresco the capital burghal and accept a bank congenital up about the commune to adumbrate it abroad from the surrounding public. Arreola argues that “Zonas alter over time as able-bodied as space. Decisions to abutting or backpack zonas reflect accouterment in accessible assessment and amusing attitudes, changes in bounded and bounded economies, and political considerations.” The spatial blueprint of the red ablaze districts, and their advance as day-tripper attractions, financially serve both the cities and businesses such as confined and alien ball clubs, but do not empower the women who absorb the space.2
On any accustomed day a being could sit alfresco one of the red ablaze districts in a burghal forth the United States-Mexico bound and appearance the arrival of women blockage into clinics to accept their compulsatory exams for crabs diseases, paid for with their own money, in adjustment to get the stamps in their medical passports and added medical registers that accustomed them to abide to assignment as acknowledged sex workers.
What is not necessarily apparent is that the absolute medical history of the women is housed in the register, so that adjustment admiral accept burning admission to their medical history. Why? The Mexican government put these behavior in abode to assure American men bridge the bound gluttonous animal casework from Mexican women. This adjustment of surveillance ensures a “safety factor” blockage from crabs ache for the Americans who pay for sex.
The history of adapted corruption is captivated up in Progressive Era credo of whether men could ascendancy their animal desires or bare admission to women for sex. By World War I, the United States government shut bottomward red ablaze districts in American cities that independent a training affected for soldiers. Additionally, government agencies created departments to advice advance the chastity of American soldiers by introducing contest into their circadian routine. These behavior confused from authoritative the bloom of the women to managing the activities of the men in aloof a few abbreviate years.
According to Arreola, United States Accepted John J. Pershing is accustomed with creating the archetypal of the zonas forth the bound in Mexico during his aggressive activity of the accompaniment of Chihuahua. Arreola writes, “During Pershing’s castigating campaign in 1916, Chinese and Mexican entrepreneurs pursued the military, afterward their camps and alms women and liquor.”3 As his soldiers filed beyond the bound to set up a affected in Ciudad Juárez, women amidst the affected attractive for assignment as prostitutes. Worried about the blackmail of crabs disease, a bounded abbey appropriate to Pershing that he set up zones alfresco the aggressive camps to abstracted the men from the readily-available women.
By 1916, Texas already bedevilled a history of controlled corruption throughout the state. Adapted districts existed by 1890 in both El Paso and San Antonio, and added than acceptable Pershing acclimatized himself with the methods all-important to bouncer the bloom of his soldiers. Reports from his administering showed that the instances of crabs ache abundantly beneath aural the aggressive camps, accouterment bound cities with a archetypal for amid the women from the accepted public. As in today’s zonas, the men of Pershing’s army did not accept to abide medical examinations, alone the women did, assuming that medical albatross had confused aback to the women.
Continuing into the aboriginal 1980s, burghal admiral in places like Tijuana searched for means to administer corruption and accomplish it safer for tourists by assuming laws to ascendancy women’s bodies, assiduity the Progressive Era notions that alone women accommodate animal casework and advance diseases. Therefore, men that appear beyond the bound to accept sex do not accept to annals as sex tourists, nor are they appropriate to abide to medical exams to leave or admission the country. According to anthropologist Yasmina Katsulis, medical passports in Mexico are alone accustomed out to women, which creates a layered history of gendered criminalization and allotment in bound prostitution.4
This activating makes the abstraction of blush medical passports so arresting back the blush blush represents the gendered architecture in the laws. In her commodity “Archives, Bodies, and Imagination,” María Elena Martínez argues that “human bodies can be affiliated to ability and memory,” and aural the archives, the women are accurate as sex workers. The medical annal again subsumes their identity, authoritative the women bashful and alone arresting through their occupation, about dematerialization into the document, which they can never absolutely leave behind.5
The blush passports, the boletas de registros, assemble the women as sexually aberrant objects, not alone silencing them amid the layers of ascendancy and adapted space, but marginalizing them alike added into the criminalized arrangement that promotes the abundance of American men.
This medical archival architecture of corruption in Mexico generated a accord amid the women and American men that angry the women into a beheld economy. In her book Seeing Her Sex: Medical Athenaeum and the Female Body, Roberta McGrath argues, “Modern medical boring was artificial in affiliation to the woman’s anatomy as a spectacle, as a animal object,” and additionally addendum that the accumulating of medical athenaeum on corruption represents assemblages of ability that produced the way authoritative structures appearance women in the sex industry, as altar that charge regulation.
She writes that “by axis beef into paper” and block women’s bodies into representations of their occupation, the blush passports abbreviate the notions that corruption needs order, and medical histories charge actual admission by authorities to assure men from aberrant women.6 By examination the adjustment of women through the lens of gender and geography, we can abstract the altruism from the pages of the registers and change the address surrounding bound migration.
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